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Musical Instruments 西洋乐器英文名称及简介
2017-10-09 09:24:10 来源: 字号: 【 】 浏览:139次 评论:0

Violin 小提琴

      A stringed instrument played with a bow, having four strings tuned at intervals of a fifth, an unfretted fingerboard, and a shallower body than the viol and capable of great flexibility in range, tone, and dynamics. 用弓演奏的一种弦乐器,四根弦,按五度音程调音,指板无品,形体较古提琴浅,音域、音色和强弱相当灵活。

 

Viola 中提琴

     A stringed instrument of the violin family, slightly larger than a violin, tuned a fifth lower, and having a deeper, more sonorous tone. 提琴家族中的一种弦乐器,稍大于小提琴,调音比小提琴低五度,声音更为深沉、洪亮。

 

Cello 大提琴

     A four-stringed instrument of the violin family, pitched lower than the viola but higher than the double bass. 一种提琴类四弦乐器,音调比中提琴低但比低音提琴高。

 

Double bass 低音提琴或大贝司

      The largest bowed stringed instrument in the modern orchestra, also used frequently in jazz ensembles, especially played pizzicato. The double bass, usually considered a member of the violin family, is tuned in fourths and has the sloping shoulders and flat back characteristic of the viols. It has a deep range beginning about three octaves below middle C. 尤用于拨奏的现代管弦乐队的最大弓弦乐器,也常用于爵士乐合奏。低音提琴通常被算作提琴类,定弦为四度,颈部倾斜和背平是低音提琴的特点。它有始于中央C音以下三个八度的深度范围。

 

Flute 长笛

      A high-pitched woodwind instrument consisting of a slender tube closed at one end with keys and finger holes on the side and an opening near the closed end across which the breath is blown. 由一根一端封闭的纤细管子组成的高音木管乐器,侧边有按键和指孔,靠近封闭端有一个使气流进入的开口。

 

Piccolo 短笛

      A small flute pitched an octave above a regular flute. 一种音调比普通笛子高八度音的小笛子。

 

Clarinet 单簧管

       A woodwind instrument having a straight, cylindrical tube with a flaring bell and a single-reed mouthpiece, played by means of finger holes and keys. 单簧管,黑管一种管乐器,有直的圆筒形管身和一个外敞的管口及一个单簧吹口,以指孔和键的方式演奏。

 

Oboe 双簧管

      A slender woodwind instrument with a conical bore and a double reed mouthpiece, having a range of three octaves and a penetrating, poignant sound. 带有一个圆锥形孔和双簧管吹口的细小的木管乐器,具有三个八度音域和穿透力强而尖利的声音。

 

English horn 英国管

      A double-reed woodwind instrument similar to but larger than the oboe and pitched lower by a fifth. 一种双簧的木制管乐器,类似于双簧管,但音高比双簧管低五度。

 

Bassoon或Fogotto 大管

     A low-pitched woodwind instrument with a double reed, having a long wooden body attached to a U-shaped lateral tube that leads to the mouthpiece. The range of this instrument is typically two octaves lower than that of the oboe. 巴松管,低音管一种低调的有双簧的木管乐器,有长的木质管身并与通向吹口的侧面管身相连,这种乐器的音域范围比双簧管明显的低两个八音度。

 

Double bassoon 低音大管

     The largest and lowest pitched of the double-reed wind instruments, sounding an octave below the bassoon. 双簧管系管乐器中音高最低的也是最大的乐器,比低音管的音高低一个八度。

 

Horn或French horn 圆号或法国圆号

     A valved brass wind instrument that produces a mellow tone from a long, narrow tube that is coiled in a circle before ending in a flaring bell. 一种有活瓣的铜管乐器,从漩涡形且端部有喇叭口的又长又细的管子里发出圆润的乐音。

 

Trumpet 小号

     A soprano brass wind instrument consisting of a long metal tube looped once and ending in a flared bell, the modern type being equipped with three valves for producing variations in pitch. 一种高音铜管乐器,由一根从前为环状的金属管和呈喇叭口得末端构成,现代小号上装有三个活瓣以制造不同的音高。

 

Cornet 短号

     A wind instrument of the trumpet class, having three valves operated by pistons. 号类的一种管乐器,有三个用活塞控制的栓塞。

 

Trombone 长号

     A brass instrument consisting of a long cylindrical tube bent upon itself twice, ending in a bell-shaped mouth, and having a movable U-shaped slide for producing different pitches. 一种铜管乐器,由弯曲两次的长圆筒形金属管构成,尾部有喇叭形口,有一个可滑动的U 形拉管,可发出不同音高的音。

 

Tuba 大号

     A large, valved, brass wind instrument with a bass pitch. 大型带活塞的低音铜管乐器。

 

Harp 竖琴

     An instrument consisting of an upright, open triangular frame with usually 46 strings of graded lengths played by plucking with the fingers. 一种有一个通常系有四十六根长短不一的琴弦的直立的开放三角架、弹奏时用手指拨动琴弦的乐器。

 

Piano 钢琴

      An instrument with a manual keyboard actuating hammers that strike wire strings, producing sounds that may be softened or sustained by means of pedals. 一种乐器,用手操作键盘驱动打击钢丝线产生声音,可以通过踏瓣的方式调轻声音或使之持续不断。

 

Organ 风琴

      An instrument consisting of a number of pipes that sound tones when supplied with air and a keyboard that operates a mechanism controlling the flow of air to the pipes. 一种由一定数量的靠输送气流发声的管子和一个操纵机械装置以使气流通过管子的键盘构成的乐器。

 

Harpsichord 羽管键琴

      A stringed instrument resembling a grand piano but usually having two keyboards and two or more strings for each note and producing tones by the plucking of strings with plectra.一种卧式竖琴型或梯形的键盘乐器,类似三角钢琴,但通常有两层键盘(部分为一层,及其个别亦有三层)和两套或更多的弦(每套发出不同音质的音),通过羽管或皮制拨子(拨子连接一顶重器,一般为一根直立的木杆)拨弦,赖琴键内端推动发声。

 

Glockenspiel 钟琴

      A percussion instrument with a series of metal bars tuned to the chromatic scale and played with two light hammers. 按半音阶调准的分级金属棒构成的打击乐器,用两个轻槌击奏。

 

Xylophone 木琴

      A percussion instrument consisting of a mounted row of wooden bars graduated in length to sound a chromatic scale, played with two small mallets. 一种打击乐器,由逐级加长的一排排镶嵌的木棒组成,并发出半音音阶,用两个小木槌敲击。

 

Bass drum 大鼓

      A large drum having a cylindrical body and two heads and producing a low, resonant sound. 一种大鼓,有个圆筒形鼓身和两个面,并能发出低沉的、共鸣的声音。

 

Tambourine 铃鼓

     An instrument consisting of a small drumhead with jingling disks that are fitted into the rim. It is shaken with one hand and struck with the other. 小手鼓,一种由边缘嵌有能叮当作响的小金属片的小鼓面构成的一种乐器,演奏时人们一只手摇它而另一只手敲它。

 

Lute 鲁特琴(中文的琵琶也译做lute)

     A stringed instrument having a body shaped like a pear sliced lengthwise and a neck with a fretted fingerboard that is usually bent just below the tuning pegs. 一种纵向削制的形状如梨的拨弦乐器,琴颈上有定音档的指板,通常弯曲于调音单轴之下。

 

Mandolin 曼陀林

     An instrument with a usually pear-shaped body and a fretted neck over which several pairs of strings are stretched. 常是梨形琴身,在有格纹的琴颈上装有几组供挑拨的琴弦。

 

Guitar 吉他

    An instrument having a large, flat-backed sound box similar in shape to a violin, a long fretted neck, and usually six strings, played by strumming or plucking. 一种具有大而平的音箱的乐器,形状与小提琴相似,琴颈长,通常有六根弦,为弹拨乐器。

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